The treatment of hearing impairments, deafness and the dump, mainly in child- hood, has
witnessed great advances with the development of ENT surgical technologies, and cochlear
implantation. This surgery has to be followed by a precise speech therapy program guided by a
well-trained speech therapist or a physiotherapy technologist.

Also, there is a number of ENT problems associated with defects in speech and articulation
problems caused by neurological diseases that needs treatment intervention by the
physiotherapy technologist.

The practice of physiotherapy requires a good experience in reading radio-logical images and
using the findings to plan management and follow up for the patients. This course explores the
basic principles of radio-logical imaging.

The political instability in a number of African countries led to local disputes and wars. Sudan is
one of these countries suffering war for more than 50ys. During these wars millions of mines
had been buried mainly in the lands where civilians move and many of them became victims to
those mines and lost their limbs, mainly the lower extremities.

In addition to this Sudan is a mycetoma – Madura region , which affect many people (peasants
& farmers) ending up with amputation of the affected limb .On the other hand, complications
of certain diseases such as diabetes mellitus , osteomyelitis , arterial insufficiency in the lower
limbs , and the much rising the road traffic accidents , may all lead to the loss of the lower
limbs. All these patients ending with amputated limbs will require substitute with artificial
ones. And this in turn, requires comprehensive physiotherapy rehabilitation

In this course the student should learn the movement of the eye ball ( muscles and nerves) and physiology of extra ocular muscles.

This two-week-clerkship addresses the increasing role of health economics in intoning deci- sion making in health systems worldwide. The student should:

(1) define health economics,

(2) describe the econometric methods of research,

(3) discuss microeconomics for decision-mak- ing and policy analysis in health,

(4) describe clinical decision analysis,

(5) basics of adminis- tering a physiotherapy unit.

The use of water for treatment has been known for more than five thousand years in the old Egyptians, Greece and roman civilization. As an alternative system of healing, hydrotherapy is the oldest, safest and cheapest method of treatment. It is easy to use in all forms as vapor, liquid or solid. It markedly relieves pain, reduces swelling, inflammation and treats a variety of ailments

This is a two-week- block, which focuses on the synthesis of professional knowledge, skills, and attitudes in preparation for professional employment and lifelong learning. Students are trained to perform small research projects in one of the physiotherapy topics that enable them to collect data, review literature, obtain results and discuss their findings in the form of presen- tations. The student should:

(1) describe research methodology listing elements of research,

{2) collect up to date information on a particular topic, using proper sampling techniques

(3) execute a small research project and analyze obtained data,

(4) discuss the significance of the results obtained and research conclusions,

(5) write down a research paper,

(6) present his findings in front of the class and discusses it with his colleagues and staff.